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The Center has not only supported the team financially buy 20 mg forzest fast delivery, but also stood behind it firmly throughout the entire period of this experience cheap forzest 20 mg with amex. Thus Carter Center has become the pioneer in the field of preparing teaching material and also in training a team of authors for future endeavors of the kind purchase forzest without prescription. In addition, the task would have been impossible without the directing of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ministry of Education. It is also not out of place to thank the administration of Gondar University, Debub University and Jimma University for extending cooperation whenever it was needed. The authors extend their appreciation to Ato Akililu Mulugeta, Manager, Carter Center, who has shepherded the team’s effort through manuscript to finished pages. Daniel Seifu, Lecturer of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Addis Ababa University for their highly professional editing and most helpful comments about many aspects of the text. Contemporary Biochemistry plays a crucial role in the Medical field, be it metabolic pathways, storage diseases, mechanism action of varied biomolecules or inter and intra cellular communications. Topics are carefully selected to cover the essential areas of the subject for graduate level of Health sciences. Molecular events in gene expression and regulation Enzymes: Body proteins perform a large number of functions. They direct the metabolic events and exhibit specificity toward substrates, regulate the entire metabolism. They assist to know damaged tissues, the extent of tissue damage, helps to monitor the course of the disease and used as a therapeutic means of diagnosing a vast array of diseases. Proteins are the molecular instruments in which genetic information is expressed, Hormones, Antibodies, transporters, the lens protein, the architectural framework of our tissues and a myriad of substances having distinct biological activities are derived. Acid base properties of amino acids are important to the individual physical and chemical nature of vi the protein. The unfolding and disorganization of the proteins results in denaturation, the process is mostly irreversible. Many amino acid derived peptides are of biological importance and special products formed from them are of critical importance to the body. Mono is the smallest sugar unit, disaccharide is made up of two monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. The failure of Galactose and fructose metabolism due to deficient enzymes leads to turbidity of lens proteins (Cataract). People suffer from Diabetes if the insulin hormone is less or not functioning well, such people are prone to atherosclerosis, vascular diseases, and renal failure. Integrative Metabolism and Bioenergetics Oxygen is utilized for the conversion of glucose to pyruvate. The main breakdown product of pyruvate is acetyl CoA, which is the common intermediate in the energy metabolism of carbohydrates, lipid and amino acids. Lipids are water insoluble, but can be extracted with non-polar solvents like Benzene, methanol, or ether. Transport forms of lipids (Lipoproteins),are present in combination with proteins Building blocks of lipids are fatty acids. Lipids are constituents of cell membrane and act as hydrophobic barrier that permits the entry/exit of certain molecules. Break down of fatty acid produce energy, excessive breakdown cause ketosis, ketoacidosis, coma and death. Vitamins and Minerals They are organic compounds required in small quantities for the functioning of the body. A third group includes trace elements, which are required in small amounts for example Fe, I, Zn, etc. Vitamins and trace elements are particularly important for patients with gastrointestinal disorders, who are fed on artificial diets or parenteral nutrition. They increase the rate of chemical reactions taking place within living cells with out changing themselves. Depending on the presence and absence of a non- protein component with the enzyme enzymes can exist as, simple enzyme or holoenzyme 1. I If this cofactor is an organic compound it is called a coenzyme and if it is an inorganic 2+ 2+ 2+ groups it is called activator. One molecule of coenzyme is able to convert a large number of substrate molecules with the help of enzyme. Metal-activated enzymes-form only loose and easily dissociable complexes with the metal and can easily release the metal without denaturation. Metalloenzymes hold the metal tightly on the molecule and do not release it even during extensive purification. The active site contains amino acid chains that create a three-dimensional surface complementary to the substrate. For the combination with substrate, each enzyme is said to possess one or more active sites where the substrate can be taken up. Catalytic efficiency/ Enzyme turnover number 3 8 Most enzyme- catalyzed reactions are highly efficient proceeding from 10 to 10 times faster than uncatalyzed reactions. Typically each enzyme molecule is capable of transforming 100 to 1000 substrate molecule in to product each second. Enzyme turn over number refers to the amount of substrate converted per unit time (carbonic anhydrase is the fastest enzyme). Stereo specificity- some enzymes are specific to only one isomer even if the compound is one type of molecule: For example: glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of β-D-glucose but not α-D- glucose, and arginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine but not D-arginine. Bond Specificity * Enzymes that are specific for a bond or linkage such as ester, peptide or glycosidic belong to this group Examples: 1. Regulation Enzyme activity can be regulated- that is, enzyme can be, activated or inhibited so that the rate of product formation responds to the needs of the cell. Zymogens (- inactive form of enzyme) Some enzymes are produced in nature in an inactive form which can be activated when they are required. Many of the digestive enzymes and enzymes concerned with blood coagulation are in this group Examples: Pepsinogen - This zymogen is from gastric juice. When required Pepsinogen converts to Pepsin Trypsinogen - This zymogen is found in the pancreatic juice, and when it is required gets converted to trypsin. Isoenzymes (Isozymes) These are enzymes having similar catalytic activity, act on the same substrate and produces the same product but originated at different site and exhibiting different physical and chemical characteristics such as electrophoretic mobilities, amino acid composition and immunological behavior. The international union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology developed a system of nomenclature on which enzymes are divided in to six major classes, each with numerous sub groups. The four digits characterize class, sub-class, sub-sub-class, and serial number of a particular enzyme. Transferases: Enzymes catalyzing a transfer of a group other than hydrogen (methyl, acyl, amino or phosphate groups) Example: Enzymes catalyzing transfer of phosphorus containing groups. Hydrolases: Enzymes catalyzing hydrolysis of ester, ether, peptido, glycosyl, acid-anhydride, C-C, C-halide, or P-N-bonds by utilizing water. Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze removal of groups from substances by mechanisms other than hydrolysis, leaving double bonds. Isomerases: Includes all enzymes catalyzing interconversion of optical, geometric, or positional isomers. Example: Enzymes catalyzing interconversion of aldose and ketoses D - Glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate ketoisomerase (triosephosphate isomerase) D - Glyceraldehyde-3phosphate Dihydroxyacetone phosphate.
According to a recent multigenic phylogenetic approach discount forzest 20mg free shipping, the speciation process in mycobacteria might have been progressive and relatively homogenous across the whole genome (Devulder 2005) purchase 20 mg forzest mastercard. When comparing substitution rates of fast and slow growing mycobacteria by means of a relative rate test cheap forzest 20 mg, non-significant differ- ences were observed. Table 2-2 provides the latest description of statistically, epidemiologically or phylogeographically relevant clo- nal complexes of the M. More recently, the presence of an oxyR C37T transition was shown to be specific to the lineage (Baker 2004). The Ma- nila family was first identified by Douglas in 1997, and was later thoroughly char- acterized by the same group (Douglas 2003). This genotype was identified based on the prevalence of clustered strains isolated from Philippino immigrants in the 2. This may be due to differences in civilization and agriculture histories between North and South China (Sola 2001b). It is also very difficult to analyze what links these clones may have with strains in the major genetic group 2, given the presence of the spacer 33 in this group of strains (a spacer that is absent in groups 2 and 3). A striking discovery related to these strains was made recently when analyzing medieval human remains discovered in an English parish. The Beijing lineage The Beijing genotype belongs to the principal genetic group 1 of Sreevatsan, and its specific spoligotype signature (absence of spacer 1-33, presence of spacer 34- 43) was discovered in 1995 (van Soolingen 1995). However, a notorious outbreak due to a multidrug resistant clone of one of its offspring (New York W strain) had been characterized earlier, at the beginning of the ’90s (Plikaytis 1994, Bifani 2002). However, Beijing should also be considered as a group of variant clones that evolved from a common precursor at an undefined time, maybe during the Genghis Khan reign or before (Mokrousov 2005). Recent evidence points to an early dispersal of the Beijing genotype in correlation to genetic haplotype diversity of the male Y chromosome (i. These results suggest that the spreading history of Beijing has a molecular evolutionary history that is much more intricate and more deeply rooted to human history than initially thought. Using the Beijing genotype as a model, and comparing its phylogeography to Y-chromosome-based phylogeogra- phy, Mokrousov et al. This lineage was also shown to be endemic in Sudan, other sub-Saharan countries and Pakistan (Brudey 2006). Thus, this strain seems to com- pensate the microbiological attenuation by skewing the innate response toward a phagocyte deactivation. However, many Haarlem clonal complexes may harbor other Haarlem-based spoligo-signatures that are, as yet, poorly charac- terized. It is present in the Caribbean to a lesser extent and is also prevalent in Central Af- rica, where it is believed to have been introduced during the European colonization (Filliol 2003). This family, which is highly diverse, merits further studies to better understand its evolutionary history. However, this genotype family is more diverse and its study is more complicated than initially thought. This phenomenon seems, however, to be rare and highly dependent on the structure of the observed spoligotype. The absence of spacers 21-24 may also have occurred more than once in tubercle bacilli evolution although no genetic evidence has suggested such a convergence event until now. However, the phylogenetic sig- nificance of the common absence of spacers 23-24 has not been demonstrated in this lineage. The X family was also the first group identified in Guadeloupe (Sola 1997) and the French Poly- nesia (Torrea 1995). The absence of spacer 18 bears phyloge- netical significance because it is improbable that this spacer was deleted more than 2. This is a general characteristic of strains belonging to the principal genetic groups 2 and 3, together with the absence of an intact pks 15/1 gene (Marmiesse 2004). The presence of intact polyketide synthase genes, active in the synthesis of the specific lipid com- plex of the M. Conversely, the 7 bp frameshift deletion in pks15/1 may be considered as a phylogenetical marker specific for the modern M. The meaning of this identity is under investigation and there is no reason to believe that it is due to convergence. Simi- larly, an endemic clone found in Nunavik (Nguyen 2003) was shown to be related to a clone found to be prevalent in central Europe (Poland and Germany) (Sola et al. Once again, we are trying to analyze how and when such movement of strains took place and whether they are representative of a deeply rooted anthropological structure or from modern outbreaks. These authors also suggest that comparative genomics between two selected genomes that have gone through very different selection pressures (H37Rv and M. Comparative genomics and evolution of tubercle bacilli The wealth of completed genome sequences, the development of microarray tech- nology, and the decreasing cost of sequencing have enabled scientists to thoroughly study the significance of strain to strain variation in bacteria such as Streptococcus agalactiae and to define the “pan-genome” concept (Tettelin 2005). Depending on the population structure of the studied organism and on the levels of lateral gene transfer, the relative part of these two pools may vary signifi- cantly. The core genome contains genes present in all strains, and the dispensable genome contains genes present in two or more strains as well as genes unique to single strains. Given that the number of unique genes is vast, the pan-genome of a bacterial species might be orders of magnitude larger than any single genome (Medini 2005). Figure 2-7 shows the non-randomness of deletions in the 16 clinical isolates that were tested by microarray against the H37Rv genome. Color code (blue, orange, green) is linked to number of deletions (respectively 1, 2 and 3 deletions). The thin red line spans the genomic region of the genome where the number of deletions detected is greater than expected by chance alone. Short-term evolutionary markers and database building There are also ongoing debates about the true status of “M. According to Smith, the computation providing a 3 million-year time frame is not reliable and there is no reason to believe that “M. Conclusion and Perspectives 81 tuberculosis complex than any animal pathogen still to be characterized. However, in order to data-mine these large polymorphism databases better, newer methods of data analysis are needed in order to discover intelligible rules and to eliminate noisy data. A practical consequence of such studies would be a simplification of typing methods, which in turn, would result in a reduction of experimental constraints and an increase in the number of samples processed. In the future, similar websites will add new markers, allowing the performance of combined searches, including country of isolation, country of origin and ethnicity of the patient, multiple geno- typing data, as well as a fine analysis of their geographical distribution. Other challenges may lie in the slow development of efficient methods to characterize the intra-species genetic diversity of the M. However, the increasing human mobility worldwide is expected to blur the picture of the history of spread of the M.
Cellulitis and Erysipelas Cellulitis is bacterial infection and inflammation of loose connective tissue (dermis subcutaneous tissue) Erysipelas is a bacterial infection of the dermis and upper subcutaneous tissue discount forzest 20mg without prescription; characterized by a well-defined discount forzest 20mg with visa, raised edge reflecting the more superficial (dermal) involvement Etiology The most common etiologic agent is group A β hemolytic streptococcus buy cheap forzest online. In young children, Hemophilus influenza type B should be considered as a possible etiology for cellulites especially of the face (facial cellulitis). Classical erysipelas starts abruptly and systemic symptoms may be acute and severe, but the response to treatment is more rapid. In erysipelas, blisters are common and severe cellulitis may also show bullae or necrosis of epidermis and can rarely progress to fasciitis or myositis. A skin break, usually a wound even if superficial, an ulcer, or an inflammatory lesion including interdigital fungal or bacterial infection, may be identified as a portal of entry. Complications Without effective treatment, complications are common - fasciitis, myositis, subcutaneous abscesses, and septicemia. Crystalline penicillin or procaine penicillin is the first line therapy and oral Ampicillin or Amoxicillin may be used for mild infection and after the acute phase resolves. It is caused by over growth of Corynebacterium minutissimum, which usually is present as a normal flora of the skin. It occurs most commonly in the groins, axillae and the intergluteal and submammary flexures, or between the toes. The duration of therapy varies, but 2 weeks is usually sufficient for topical fucidin and erythromycin. In these cases, the usual approach adopted is to give long-term antiseptic soaps, such as povidone-iodine and to use drying agents, such as powders, in the affected areas. Superficial fungal infection of the skin Superficial fungal infections of the skin are one of the most common dermatologic conditions seen in clinical practice. However, making the correct diagnosis can be difficult, because these infections can have an atypical presentation or be confused with similar-appearing conditions. Superficial fungal infections can be divided into three broad categories: dermatophytic infections, Pityriasis versicolor and cutaneous candidasis 3. Dermatophytes Specifically Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum species, are responsible for most superficial fungal infections. Dividing infections into the body region most often affected can help in identification of the problem. Tinea Capitis Tinea capitis is a dermatophytic infection of the head and scalp, usually found in infants, children, and young adolescents. Around puberty, sebum production by sebaceous glands becomes active, and as a result, it tends to disappear. Commonest presentation is scaly patches on the scalp with variable degree of hair loss and generalized scaling that resembles seborrhic dermatitis may occur on the scalp. An unusual scaling reaction known as favus may give the scalp a waxy or doughy appearance with thick crusted areas. Griseofulvin in a dose of 10-20 mg per kg for six weeks to 8weeks is the first-line treatment of Tinea capitis. Lesions are round, scaly patches that have a well defined, enlarging border and a relatively clear central portion. Itching is variable and not diagnostic Tinea corporis can assume a giant size (Tinea incognito) when steroids are applied for cosmetic reasons or as a result of miss diagnosis. Tinea pedis Tinea pedis is fungal infection of the feet and is usually related to sweating and warmth, and use of occlusive footwear. It may also present with a classic pattern on the dorsal surface of the foot or as chronic dry, scaly hyperkeratosis of the soles and heels. Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor) Versicolor versicolor is a common, benign, superficial cutaneous (stratum corneum) fungal infection at the level of stratum corneum characterized by hypo pigmented or hyperpigmented macules and patches with faint scale on the chest and the back. Etiology: Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporon ovale,) M furfur is a member of normal flora of the skin found in 18% of infants and 90-100% of adults. Predisposing factors include - genetic predisposition, warm, humid environments, excessive sweating, immunosuppression, malnutrition, and Cushing disease. Treatment Patients should be informed that it is caused by a normal flora of the skin hence it is not transmitted and any skin color alterations resolve within 1-2 months after treatment. Effective topical agents include: Sodium thiosulphate solution, selenium sulfide and azole, ciclopiroxolamine, and allylamine antifungals. Weekly applications of any of the topical agents for the following few months may help prevent recurrence. Ketoconazole 200-mg daily for 10-days and as a single-dose 400-mg treatment, have comparative results. Oral therapy does not prevent the high rate of recurrence, unless repeated on an intermittent basis throughout the year. Candidiasis Candida infections caused by yeast-like fungi Candida albicans commonly occur in moist, flexural sites. Under certain conditions, they can become so numerous that they cause infections, particularly in warm and moist areas. Pruritic rash that begins with vesiculopustules, which enlarge and rupture, causing maceration and fissuring. Paronychia and onychomycosis Frequently, paronychia and onychomycosis are associated with immersion of the hands in water. Patients present with a painful and erythematous area around and underneath the nail and nail bed, warm, glistening, tense, and tender. There is secondary nail thickening, ridging, discoloration, and occasional nail loss in chronic cases. Physical examination reveals a diffuse erythema and white patches that appear on the surfaces of the buccal mucosa, throat, tongue, and gums. The presence of retrosternal pain, epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting may suggest esophageal candidiasis Vulvovaginal candidiasis: This is the second most common cause of vaginitis. A patch resembling thrush appears on the glans and may spread to the thighs, gluteal folds, buttocks, and scrotum. Treatment Candida intertrigo - Topical azoles and polyenes, including clotrimazole, miconazole, and nystatin, are effective. Paronychia - the most important intervention is drainage followed by oral antifungal therapy with either ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole. Single daily dose of itraconazole taken for 3-6 months or a pulsed-dose regimen that requires a slightly higher dose daily for 7 days, followed by 3 weeks off therapy. Vulvovaginal candidiasis – Azole suppository or pessaries , in resistant case systemic therapy for 10 days. Warts Warts or verrucae are benign growths on the skin or mucous membranes that cause cosmetic problems as well as pain and discomfort. The incubation period of a wart is 2 to 9 months during which time an excessive proliferation of skin growth slowly develops. Common warts, especially in children, do not necessarily need to be treated, because they exhibit a high rate of spontaneous remission. Treatment Salicylic acid 25% ointment twice daily followed by cutting or scraping Preparation of salicylic acid 5-20% and lactic acid 5-20 in collodion are easier to use Electrodessication and curettage Freezing with liquid nitrogen if available. Protect the skin around the wart with Vaseline apply the podophyllin with a match stick carefully on the top of the war and wash after 6 hours. Molluscum contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the skin that causes discrete papules that may be mistaken for warts.