Magnesium sulfate | 531 M agnesium sulfate 10% solution in 10-mL and 50-mL ampoules: 20% solution in 20-mL ampoules 50% solution in 2-mL purchase cabergoline 0.25mg overnight delivery, 5-mL and 10-mL ampoules; 4-mL and 10-mL pre-filled syringes 20mmol in 100mL NaCl 0 purchase 0.5 mg cabergoline free shipping. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present purchase 0.5mg cabergoline with mastercard. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Intramuscular injection (painful, avoid if possible) Preparation and administration 1. If the injection solution used contains more than 20% magnesium sulfate dilute to 20% before administration, e. Technical information Incompatible with Amiodarone, amphotericin, ciprofloxacin, drotrecogin alfa (activated). Stability after preparation From a microbiological point of view, should be used immediately; however, prepared infusions may be stored at 2--8 C and infused (at room temperature) within 24 hours. Magnesium sulfate | 533 Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Serum Mg Throughout therapy * For signs of clinical improvement. Risk of respiratory depression if given with high doses of barbiturates, opioids or hypnotics. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. M annitol 100mg/mL (10%) solution in 250-mL and 500-mL infusion bags 200mg/mL (20%) solution in 250-mL and 500-mL infusion bags * Mannitol is a hexahydric alcohol that is an isomer of sorbitol. When infused it increases serum osmolality, which in turn removes fluid from tissues and promotes diuresis. Pre-treatment checks Do not give in congestive cardiac failure, pulmonary oedema and active intracranial bleeding (except during craniotomy). Intravenous infusion Infusion via a central venous catheter is preferable because of the risk of damage to veins (see Osmolarity below). Inspect visually for partic- ulate matter (particularly crystals) or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Observation of infusion site Consider every * Extravasation can lead to necrosis and 30 minutes thrombosis. Renal function, serum Consider 2--4 hourly * Fluid imbalance and worsening renal electrolytesand urine output function may be precipitated. Cardiovascular status * May intensify existing or latent congestive heart failure due to expansion of extracellular fluid volume. Other: Fluid and electrolyte imbalance, circulatory overload, acidosis at high doses, "extracellular volume can precipitate pulmonary oedema. Action in case of overdose Give supportive measures and observe the recommendations in Monitoring above. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. M eptazinol 100mg/mL solution in 1-mL ampoules * Meptazinol hydrochloride is an opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic, with central cholinergic activity. Pre-treatment checks * Do not use in acute respiratory depression, where there is a risk of paralytic ileus, in "intracranial pressure and in head injury, in comatose patients, in acute abdomen, in delayed gastric emptying, in chronic constipation, in cor pulmonale or in acute porphyria. Close monitoring of respiratory rate and consciousness is recommended for 30 minutes in patients receiving an initial dose, especially elderly patients or those of low bodyweight. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Close monitoring of respiratory rate and consciousness is recommended for 30 minutes in patients receiving an initial dose, especially elderly patients or those of low bodyweight. Technical information Incompatible with No information Compatible with Flush: NaCl 0. Monitoring Close monitoring of respiratory rate and consciousness is recommended for 30 minutes in patients receiving initial dose, especially elderly patients or those of low bodyweight Measure Frequency Rationale Pain At regular intervals * To ensure therapeutic response. Monitor for side- * May cause side-effects such as nausea and effects and toxicity constipation, which may need treating. Counselling May cause drowsiness that may affect the ability to perform skilled tasks; if affected do not drive or operate machinery, avoid alcoholic drink (the effects of alcohol are enhanced). This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. M eropenem 500-mg, 1-g dry powder vials * Meropenem trihydrate is a carbapenem beta-lactam antibacterial. Pre-treatment checks * Do not give if there is known hypersensitivity to any carbapenem antibacterial agent or previous immediate hypersensitivity reaction to penicillins or cephalosporins. Dose in renal impairment: adjusted according to creatinine clearance:1 * CrCl >20--50mL/minute: 500mg--2g every 12 hours. Withdraw the required dose and add to a suitable volume of compatible infusion fluid (usually 50--200mL NaCl 0. Technical information Incompatible with Amphotericin, calcium gluconate, diazepam, ondansetron, pantoprazole. Displacement value Negligible Stability after Reconstituted vials and prepared infusions should be used immediately. Sensitivity testing in * To ensure microorganism remains Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitive to therapy. Development of diarrhoea Throughout and up to 2 * Development of severe, persistent months after treatment diarrhoea may be suggestive of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea and colitis (pseudomembranous colitis). Additional information Common and serious Immediate: Anaphylaxis and other hypersensitivity reactions have been undesirable effects reported. Injection/infusion-related: Local: Thrombophlebitis Other: Headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, rash, pruritus. Pharmacokinetics Elimination half-life is 1 hour (>6 hours if CrCl <50mL/minute; >20 hours if CrCl <20mL/minute). This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. M esna 100mg/mL solution in 4-mL and 10-mL ampoules * Mesna is given systemically to protect the urinary tract from toxic urinary metabolites in patients being treated with oxazaphosphorine derivatives (ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide). Duration of mesna treatment should therefore equal that of the oxazaphosphorine treatment plus about 8--12 hours (the time it takes for the urinary metabolites to fall to non-toxic levels). Dose In all cases be guided by the oncology team responsible for treating the patient. Intermittent injection or infusion: the total dose of mesna is 60% (w/w) of the oxazapho- sphorine dose in three divided doses; the first dose is concomitant with the oxazaphosphorine with the remaining doses after 4 and 8 hours. Where ifosfamide is used as a 24-hour or long-term infusion: once administration of the ifosfamidedoseiscomplete,afurther12-hourinfusionofmesnaisgivenatadoseof60%(w/w) ofthe ifosfamidedose. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present.
Those who have used it to restore patients from the dangerous effects of anesthetics keep it constantly at hand for this purpose discount 0.5mg cabergoline. Favorable results are reported in two cases where patients were threatened with hydrophobia discount cabergoline 0.25 mg mastercard. There was one test case in which the patient bitten treated as above buy generic cabergoline 0.25mg line, showed no signs of hydrophobia while all Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 285 the animals bitten by the same dog, developed the disease in fatal form. A remarkable case is reported where a patient would indulge in an occasional alcoholic debauch. In all forms of calculi where the pain is extreme, lobelia must be given in full free doses. In the treatment of malaria, it can be adjusted to assist the antiperiodics if given before the expected paroxysm. Several cases of pernicious congestive chill have been restored by its prompt and sufficient use. In scarlet fever, especially severe cases, it acts promptly and in line with its indications will meet the expectation of the prescriber. In cases of obstinate constipation or obstipation, it has produced such relaxation that the obstacles were quickly removed. It has been given where there was extreme albuminaria in which it supported the strength of the patient until other measures could be used. Lobelia has been given in full doses in cases of profound anuria three doses of from twenty to forty minim having been sufficient. Lophophora williamsii Synonyms—Anhalonium lewini, Peyote This agent, one of the small cacti of Mexico, has been recommended for certain special conditions as an important heart remedy. It seems to act directly upon the nerve centers in a manner much like aconite, reducing the force and frequency of the pulse. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 286 One writer claims that anhalonium resembles aconite in its action first, but immediately the symptoms are similar to the influence of belladonna. It is advised as especially valuable where there is a tendency to nervous debility, or where failure for those who labor under great stress of pain, or those who from extensive stress of business or extravagant use of tobacco are troubled with sleeplessness, or those who are reduced in their mental power, or suffer from loss of memory. No careful, general or exhaustive observation has been made concerning its action. It has been used in angina pectoris, asthma or acute asthmatic dyspnea or dyspnea from cardiac feebleness, and in pneumothorax, it has produced good results. Cactus is a special sedative under certain circumstances, and this agent promises to be as good. It deserves careful investigation in those lines in which cactus exercises its therapeutic influence. A writer in the Medical World suggests five drops of anhalonium three times a day in the treatment of diabetes. The tincture prepared from the triturated sporules, contains to the fullest extent the medicinal principles of the herb. Physiological Action—The older writers claimed that the agent acted as a stimulant to the sympathetic visceral system of nerves and influenced the functional activity of all organs so controlled. It was believed to increase the tone of the liver, and to restrain over-action of the kidneys Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 287 and eliminative organs. Pain under the ribs and around the waist; shooting pains under the shoulder blades; severe pains across the stomach; nausea; vomiting of sour and bitter food; persistent constipation; painful bleeding piles; coldness of the extremities; pale, ashy or jaundiced complexion, with dirty skin; in some cases of flatulence, with distention of the intestines; persistent constipation of children; irritation of the bowels following an injection; sour stomach and heartburn; in old standing congestions of the liver, with great desire to sleep after eating. Therapy—The simple powder is used extensively as an application to tender and irritable conditions of the skin, and as an application to certain skin diseases to which a dry powder would seem applicable—to intertrigo, erysipelas, eczema, herpes, and ulcerated surfaces and perhaps to burns. Its domestic use is in its application to chafed surfaces and as a dusting powder for infants. The agent is said to be dependable in its influence upon certain severe forms of dyspepsia. That common condition present in catarrhal gastritis, evidenced by soreness on pressure over the stomach, and a sensation of fullness of the stomach when only a little has been eaten, is quickly relieved by its use. It is advised in rheumatic conditions, especially if accompanied by any of the above indications. It is depended upon as a cure for the uric acid diathesis and in this probably lies its influence upon rheumatism. Harrison of Illinois treated several cases of fever that had morning remissions, but the highest occurred in the middle of the afternoon, in which the urine was suddenly of a dark red color, and deposited the usual stains of the urates with considerable uric acid. Small doses of lycopodium, twenty drops in four ounces of water, a teaspoonful every two hours, was sufficient to modify all the conditions and overcome the fever. In its action upon the urinary apparatus it relieves urinary incontinence, especially if caused by an excess of uric acid and the urates, painful urination and vesical catarrh. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 288 It is also serviceable in gonorrhea and in gleet. The principal therapeutic influence of lycopus seems to be upon the thoracic viscera, and consequently upon all lesions having diseases of these organs for their basis. The use of the lycopus may be confined to certain fixed indications with better results than follow its indiscriminate use in any general class of cases, regardless of conditions. Specific Symptomatology—In diseases of the heart, either functional or organic, marked by irritability and irregularity of the organ, dyspnea, feeling of oppression in the cardiac region, its administration is followed by gratifying results. Hypertrophy and dilatation have been known to undergo marked diminution in consequence of its administration. It acts like digitalis in reducing the velocity of the pulse, but has no cumulative effects. In pericarditis and endocarditis its sedative action lessens the frequency of the pulse, irritability, and its attendant inflammation, in a manner equaled by no other remedy. Cases of exopthalmic goitre are reported as having been cured by lycopus, and it would be well to give it a thorough trial in this most intractable disease. Goss said that in palpitation and valvular disease of the heart, lycopus is good; in hemoptysis it is so positive in its action that he seldom used any other remedy. He considered it a sedative as well as an astringent in its action, controlling the capillary circulation by diminishing the caliber of the vessels, thereby reducing the flow of the blood. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 289 In diseases of the respiratory apparatus lycopus has been found to be very useful. Hale lauds lycopus highly for its efficiency when used in cases of incipient phthisis and in chronic inflammatory diseases of the lungs. Chronic irritable cough, arising from the smouldering inflammation in the lungs, can be cured by its administration. It has been used repeatedly in the high temperature of typhoid fever with uniformly good results; it not only effectually reduced the excessive heat, but in so doing, it did not depress in the least the vital forces of the patient. To a certain extent it acts on the heart as a nerve sedative by lessening its action, also by constringing the blood vessels; hence, diminishing the flow of blood.
The pack should be removed from the refrigerator and allowed to come to room temperature before reconstitution purchase cabergoline without a prescription. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to reconstitute the vial with the diluent provided to give a thick cabergoline 0.5 mg line,milkysuspensioncontaining25mg/2mL order cabergoline discount,37. For gluteal administration use a 50-mm needle and alternate injections between the buttocks; for deltoid administration use a 25-mm needle and alternate between the arms Technical information Incompatible with Not relevant Compatible with Not relevant pH 6. If refrigeration is not available the product may be stored below 25 C for up to 7 days prior to administration. Stability after From a microbiological point of view, should be used immediately; however, preparation reconstituted suspension may be stored at 25 C for up to 6 hours. Shake the syringe vigorously to re-suspend the microspheres before administration. Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Therapeutic effect During dose adjustment * To ensure reduction/elimination of and periodically psychotic symptoms. Additional information Common and serious Weight gain, depression, fatigue and extrapyramidal symptoms. If the patient is in shock, treatment with metaraminol or noradrenaline may be appropriate. Counselling Advise patients not to drink alcohol especially at the beginning of treatment. May impair alertness so do not drive or operate machinery until susceptibility is known. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. ClinicalGuideline82:Coreinterventionsinthetreatmentand management ofschizophreniain primary and secondary care (update). Pre-treatment checks * Caution in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease because exacerbation of angina, arrhythmia, and heart failure have been reported. Administer only in an environment where full resuscitation facilities are immediately available. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Observe for mild infusion-related * #Infusion rate usually resolves reactions: fevers, chills rigors these symptoms. Respiratory function * In patients with pre-existing pulmonary conditions or in whom adverse pulmonary events have occurred at previous infusions. Infusion-related: Occur predominantly during the first infusion and include cytokinereleasesyndrome(see Monitoringabove),feverandchills,nausea and vomiting, allergic reactions (such as rash, pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm and dyspnoea), flushing and tumour pain. Actionincaseof overdose There is no specific antidote and treatment should be symptomatic. Counselling Any vaccination schedule should be completed at least 4 weeks prior to the first treatment. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Premature labour: glucose is the preferred diluent and use of a syringe pump is the preferred means of administration ("risk of maternal pulmonary oedema if saline or large volumes of fluid are used). However, this use is controversial as it is reportedly no more effective than 10--20mg nebulised salbutamol and may be more likely to cause cardiac arrhythmias. If effective, #K levels are seen in 30 minutes and the effect may last for up to 2 hours. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Continuous intravenous infusion (large volume infusion) Preparation of a 20 micrograms/mL solution 1. Using the 5mg/5mL strength of salbutamol, withdraw 10mg (10mL) and add to the prepared infusion bag to give a solution containing 20 micrograms/mL. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Stability after From a microbiological point of view, should be used immediately; however, it preparation may be stored at 2--8 C and infused (at room temperature) within 24 hours. Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Respiratory function Frequently * For signs of clinical improvement. Significant * Beta-blockers (including eye drops) may #salbutamol levels or effect. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Selenium 50 micrograms/mL solution in 2-mL and 10-mL ampoules * Selenium is an essential trace element that acts as a co-factor in various enzymes in the human body. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Technical information Incompatible with A precipitate forms if the pH falls below 7 and if the solution is mixed with reducing substances, e. Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Selenium level Periodically * For signs of clinical improvement. Additional information Common and serious None known undesirable effects Pharmacokinetics Elimination is dependent on the selenium status of the body. Chronic overdose can affect growth of nails and hair and may lead to peripheral polyneuropathy. Antidote: Forced diuresis or the administration of high doses of ascorbic acid may be of use. In the case of an extreme overdose (1000--10000 times the normal dose) dialysis may help. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Pre-treatment checks Do not use in pregnancy, or severe renal or hepatic disease, a history of blood disorders, exfoliative dermatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, necrotising enterocolitis, pulmonary fibrosis or porphyria. The dose frequency may then be reduced to every 2 weeks until full remission occurs and then further reduced on specialist advice. If thereisno evidenceof improvement after atotaldose of1g has beengiven, andifthere arenosigns of gold toxicity,then100mg may be giveneveryweekfor 6weeks. Technical information Incompatible with Not relevant Compatible with Not relevant pH Not relevant (continued) 752 | Sodium aurothiomalate Technical information (continued) Sodium content Negligible Storage Store below 25 C in original packaging. Skin inspection * Rashes often occur after 2--6 months of treatment and may necessitate stopping treatment. Medical observation For a period of 30 * Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported. Additional information Common and serious Immediate: Anaphylaxis and other hypersensitivity reactions have been undesirable effects reported. Other: Severe reactions (occasionally fatal) in up to 5% of patients; mouth ulcers, skin reactions, proteinuria, blood disorders, irreversible pigmentation in sun-exposed areas. Pharmacokinetics Elimination half-life is 5--6 days; this can increase with multiple doses and gold may be found in the urine for up to 12 months owing to its presence in deep body compartments.
This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph discount cabergoline online visa. Clodronate sodium | 167 Clodronate sodium (sodium clodronate generic cabergoline 0.5mg with amex, disodium clodronate) 60mg/mL solution in 5-mL ampoules * Sodium clodronate is a bisphosphonate with properties similar to those of the other bisphospho- nates buy generic cabergoline 0.5 mg online. It inhibits bone resorption but appears to have less effect on bone mineralisation. Pre-treatment checks * Do not give to patients already receiving other bisphosphonates. Women of child-bearing potential should take contraceptive precautions during planned treatment. For multiple infusions, these are repeated daily until normo- calcaemia is achieved, or for a maximum of 7 days. Dose in renal impairment: adjusted according to creatinine clearance (see Table C3). It seems wise to give the dose as smaller multiple infusions -- no guidance exists for dose adjustment for large single infusions. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Multiple intravenous infusions Preparation and administration Clodronate sodium is incompatible with Hartmann’s and Ringer’s (which contain Ca). Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Technical information Incompatible with Clodronate sodium is incompatible with Hartmann’s and Ringer’s (which contain Ca). Stability after From a microbiological point of view, should be used immediately; however, preparation prepared infusions should be infused within 12 hours of preparation. Clodronate sodium | 169 Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Fluid balance Frequently during * Hydration "Ca diuresis. Additional information Common and serious Immediate: Angioedema and bronchospasm have been reported. Pharmacokinetics The half-life for elimination from plasma is 2 hours but a second phase with a half-life of 13 hours has been identified (<10% of total urinary excretion takes placeduringthisphase). Thesubstancewhichisboundtoboneisexcretedmore slowly at a rate corresponding to bone turnover. Significant drug Clodronate sodium may "levels or effect (or "side-effects) of estramustine. Advise patients with risk factors for osteonecrosis of the jaw (see pre-treatment checks) not to undergo invasive dental procedures during treatment. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Pre-treatment checks * Do not use in respiratory depression; acute pulmonary insufficiency; sleep apnoea syndrome; marked neuromuscular respiratory weakness including unstable myasthenia gravis. Intravenous injection Preparation and administration Give slowly into a large vein to reduce risk of thrombophlebitis. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Withdraw the required dose and add to a suitable volume of compatible infusion fluid to give a maximum concentration of 3mg in 250mL, e. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Technical information Incompatible with Sodium bicarbonate Compatible with Flush: NaCl 0. Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Seizure frequency and At regular intervals * Monitor for reduction in the frequency and severity severity to ensure therapeutic effect. Counselling May cause transient drowsiness -- if affected do not drive or operate machinery. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Clonidine hydrochloride | 173 * Clonidine has been given (unlicensed) by the epidural and intrathecal routes for the management of pain. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Stability after From a microbiological point of view, should be used immediately; however, preparation prepared infusions may be stored at 2--8 C and infused (at room temperature) within 24 hours. Systemic effects also occur after epidural use and patients should be closely monitored, particularly during the first few days of therapy. Elimination half-life is 10--20 hours and up to 41 hours in severe renal impairment. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Co-amoxiclav doses may also be expressed as individual mass (mg) of amoxicillin/clavulanate. Pre-treatment checks * Do not give if there is known hypersensitivity to penicillins or previous history of penicillin- associated jaundice/hepatic dysfunction. Dose in renal impairment: adjusted according to creatinine clearance:1 * CrCl >30--50mL/minute: dose as in normal renal function. Intravenous injection Preparation and administration Co-amoxiclav is incompatible with Gluc 5% (but may be injected into drip tubing over 3--4 minutes). If this is not possible then flush the line thoroughly with a compatible solution between drugs. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. If this is not possible then flush the line thoroughly with a compatible solution between drugs. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Technical information Incompatible with Co-amoxiclav is incompatible with Gluc 5% (but may be injected into drip tubing over 3--4 minutes). Prothrombin time * Prolongationofbleedingtimeanddefectiveplateletfunction may occur (monitor closely if anticoagulated). Development of Throughout and * Development of severe, persistent diarrhoea may be diarrhoea up to 2 months suggestive of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea and after treatment colitis (pseudomembranous colitis). Additional information Common and serious Immediate: Anaphylaxis and other hypersensitivity reactions have been undesirable effects reported.
Veterinarians find aconite immensely beneficial in the treatment of the inflammatory diseases of anitnals; but objections arise in the treatment of disease in horses buy generic cabergoline online, from the fact that horses are much more susceptible to Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica order 0.5 mg cabergoline with mastercard, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 12 its action than man purchase cabergoline 0.5 mg without a prescription. An overdose produces in the mouth and throat a tingling sensation, followed by symptoms of strangulation from paralysis of the nerve endings. The patient becomes too weak to stand, the respiration is greatly depressed and insufficient, the heart beats more feebly and the pulse may vary every few minutes in its character, but it is always weak. Aconite depresses the heat centers, and, by dilating the capillaries of the skin, permits rapid heat radiation, thus at the same time, acting in a two-fold manner upon the temper-ature. Consequently the temperature of the surface of the body is a fairly correct criterion by which to judge of the internal temperature. There may be vomiting, failure of the special senses from the general paralyzing effect of the agent, syncope or mild delirum and convulsions. Antidotes—If a full toxic dose be taken, the above symptoms advance most rapidly, and no time whatever should be lost in combating the influence of the agent. If there is any reason for believing that the stomach contains any of the agent, large quantities of warm water should be swallowed and immediately evacuated. It may be vomited or siphoned out with a long stomach tube, or pumped out, but extreme nauseating emetics are contra-indicated. A mild infusion of oak bark, drunk freely, serves the double purpose of diluting the aconite and antidoting it by the tannin it contains. Tannic acid is believed to be a chemical antidote to a limited extent, and given in suspension in water is efficient. Alcoholic stimulants, ammonia, capsicum in a hot infusion, and digitalis, strophanthus or atropine by hypodermic injection, or nitro- glycerine are most serviceable remedies. Fluid Extract of Adonis Vernalis; miscible in water without material precipitation. It is usually prescribed: ten drops in four ounces of water, a teaspoonful every two hours. Adonidin—The constituents of adonis were studied by Cervello, who obtained from it only one active substance, which he named "Adonidin. It is a non-nitrogenous, colorless, odorless and extremely bitter amorphous powder. Physiological Action—From a careful clinical and physiological study of the effects of adonis vernalis, Dr. Budnow concludes that the active principle excites the inhibitory nerves in the heart at the central end; that its further action is to paralyze the peripheral end of the vagus; that it likewise excites the accelerator nerves, sometimes directly (through the blood pressure), sometimes indirectly; that at the moment of the vagal paralysis, the two systems of cardiac innervation interfere; that at the termination of the toxic effect, paralysis of the motor nervous apparatus of the heart occurs; that after death there. Durand sums up his observations as follows: In doses of 1/ grain 3 Adonidin increases arterial tension, regulates the heart beat, diminishes the frequency of the pulse, increases the force of the cardiac contractions. Acting with rapidity, its effect being present only during administration increases diuresis, is well tolerated, but increased doses irritate the stomach. He commends its use especially in mitral insufficiency and interstitial myocarditis, and in palpitation of the heart. Therapy—Adonis is indicated in chronic weak heart where the venous circulation is engorged, and where there is a tendency to varicosed Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 14 ulcers. The agent is of value in those conditions which result from imperfect arterial tension, due to incompetent heart action. It is useful in many cases of dropsy, especially if the kidneys are inefficient in their action. In general dropsy its influence is quite as satisfactory as that of the other heart remedies, probably, however, not more so than digitalis, although its diuretic influence is sometimes great. In those cases in which digitalis fails to produce diuresis, the diuretic influence of adonis vernalis is more constant. It has been advised by some prominent authorities in the treatment of epilepsy The following formula has been suggested: Forty grains are dissolved in five ounces of water and filtered. Physiological Action—Aesculus Glabra acts on the cerebro-spinal system; and in toxic doses causes vertigo, vomiting, wryneck, opisthotonos, tympanites, stupor, coma and death. Therapy—Aesculus Glabra is a narcotic, but actively stimulates the nervous system somewhat like nux vomica. It has a special influence on the capillary circulation of the rectum, and on the pelvic and portal Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 15 circulations and overcomes constipation and congestion associated with hemorrhoids, and aids in the absorption of the coagulated blood in hemorrhoidal tumors where a surgical operation is not deemed advisable. It lessens the caliber of the capillary vessels, and removes obstructions to the pelvic circulation, and is applicable whenever congestion results in hemorrhoids, or in enlargement of the uterus. There may be a sense of fullness in the rectum or there may be dryness with stricture of the rectum, causing a proctitis, all of which is relieved by this remedy as well also as the headache, backache and digestive or asthmatic disturbances, which are reflexly induced. Specific agrimony, from one to forty minims Specific Symptomatology—Deep soreness or tenderness over the kidneys. Inflammation of the kidneys, or bladder, with foul-smelling urine, containing a sediment when passed, accompanied with discoloration, and dirty appearance of the skin. This agent should be given in that common and intractable condition, where there is dribbling of urine in elderly people, always present when coughing or sneezing. Bronchial or pulmonary cough, where there are thick and profuses secretions, is relieved by it. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 16 Therapy—The older physicians spoke very highly of the action of this remedy within the limits of the above indications. It inhibits excessive action of the mucous membranes, giving tone to the mucous, tissues. In chronic bronchitis and asthma, and in the earlier stage of consumption, it was especially advised. All authors agree, however, that its influence is most direct upon the kidneys, correcting imperfect elimination through these organs. The atonic and relaxed mucous membranes which secrete excessively, are restored to normal tone and normal functional activity by its use. Bronchorrhea and leucorrhea, chronic ulcerative gastric catarrh, as well as colitis, ileocolitis proctitis and cystitis, all come within the range of its influence. In ulcerative stomatitis, with foul smelling breath, it may be used alone or in conjunction with astringent alteratives, as quercus alba, alnus or geranium. Agrimony is useful in a form of dysuria which affects women and girls, especially those who are suffering from some form of dysmenorrhea; or those in which there is difficulty in having a normal menstrual function established, this function being accompanied with much pain and general distressing symptoms. At the same time there may be hysterical symptoms, which result from uterine or ovarian congestion, which on its part, may be increased by the urinary irritation. This remedy seems to soothe the nervous system while it quiets the local irritation of the bladder. Pain due to chronic renal or cystic inflammation is relieved by it through its direct influence upon the pathological processes. There must be more general observation of the action of this remedy, as it certainly possesses important properties. We would be inclined to combine cimicifuga or gelsemium and pulsatilla with agrimony, but the old doctors believed the latter remedy would cover the entire group of symptoms.
If pulmonary stenosis is present buy cabergoline 0.5mg with amex, then pulmonary blood flow will be limited discount cabergoline online mastercard, and these infants usually present with more profound cyanosis without heart failure cheap cabergoline 0.25 mg mastercard. Truncus arteriosus also results in total mixing of systemic and pulmonary venous blood, however in patients with truncus, mixing occurs at the great vessel level. However, even in many other subspecialties, you may likely be responsible for playing some role in the care of a child with congenital heart disease or an adult who has had repair of congenital heart disease during childhood. There are now, for the first time in history, more adults with congenital heart disease alive in the U. Whichever subspecialty you choose, it will be necessary to know some of the more common congenital heart diseases and how their cardiopulmonary systems respond to various perturbations, such as fluid shifts, anesthesia and infection, to name a few. While it is impossible in a short period of time to cover the major congenital heart lesions, however, by understanding the basic anatomy and physiology of the major classes of congenital heart disease, you will be well prepared to adopt these basic principals to the specifics of the particular lesion you are managing. Congenital heart disease is also the leading cause of death due to congenital malformations (accounting for 33% of all mortality). Ventricular septal defect, either alone or in combination with other defects, is the most common congenital heart lesion, followed by patent ductus arteriosus. Specific chromosomal abnormalities which have been associated with congenital heart disease include: 1. More recently, a growing list of congenital heart lesions have been associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities, and several have even been linked to specific gene defects (Table 2). The resources of the Human Genome Project combined with powerful new tools of molecular genetics will over the next several years result in the rapid lengthening of this list of congenital heart disease genes. Still, even with a known genetic abnormality, the occurrence of heart disease is not a given, and therefore multifactorial etiologies and/or the presence of modifier genes must play a role. Thought to represent approximately 10% of etiologies but may play a more substantial role as modifiers of genetic disorders: 1. Retinoic acid (conotruncal defects) and dilantin (Ebstein’s malformation, pulmonary stenosis) have been associated with heart defects. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may cause early closure of the ductus arteriosus during late gestation, leading to physiologic derangements, but not to structural abnormalities. One of the best characterized genetic causes of congenital heart disease is the deletion of a large region of chromosome 22q11, known as the DiGeorge critical region. Recent studies have implicated the transcription factor Tbx1 in the etiology of DiGeorge syndrome and mice with genetic deletion of Tbx1 duplicate many of the clinical findings of patients with this syndrome. Cardiac lesions associated with 22q11 deletions are most often seen in association with either the DiGeorge syndrome or the Shprintzen (velocardiofacial) syndrome. The specific cardiac anomalies fall into the subcategories of conotruncal defects (tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus, double outlet right ventricle, subarterial ventricular septal defect) and branchial arch defects (coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch and right aortic arch). Although the risk of recurrence is extremely low in the absence of a parental 22q11 deletion, the risk of recurrence is 50% if one of the parents does carry the deletion. Congenital heart diseases for which chromosomal abnormalities (and some specific gene defects) have been identified. However, because resistance through the pulmonary circulation is lower than through the systemic circulation, left to right shunting will occur. Symptoms may begin in the 4th and 5th decades of life: atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. Large defects are usually closed surgically during the first six months of life, depending on severity of symptoms (rapid respirations, sweating, trouble eating, failure to thrive). Small defects will often close spontaneously, especially if the defect is small and muscular in location. As long as the systemic vascular resistance is higher than the pulmonary vascular resistance, the shunt will be left to right. However, long term exposure of the pulmonary vascular bed to high pressure and high flow will lead to a progressive increase in medial smooth muscle in resistance arterioles (pulmonary vascular disease). Patients at this time are not suitable candidates for surgical repair and must be considered for heart-lung transplantation. Defect in primum atrial septum Congenital Malformations Of The Heart - Gerald Berry, M. Patients with trisomy 21 are at risk of prematurely elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and more rapid development of Eisenmenger Syndrome. Note the presence of left-to-right shunting at both atrial and ventricular levels. Anatomy: In normal newborns, functional closure of the ductus usually occurs within the first 48 hours. Total anatomical closure is complete in 35% of infants at two weeks, 90% at two months and 99% at one year. Clinical presentation: In the first few hours of life, before the pulmonary vascular bed has fully vasodilated, the pulmonary vascular resistance is close to systemic, and the shunt through the ductus is small. As the pulmonary bed dilates in the first day of life, flow through the ductus will increase, left- to-right. Anatomy: The pulmonary valve may be tricuspid with fused leaflets, bicuspid, or unicuspid. Stenosis may occur in the subvalvar area, supravalvar area, or in the peripheral pulmonary arteries. Clinical presentation: Patients usually present with a heart murmur but rarely with clinical symptoms unless very severe. Moderate to severe stenosis can usually be treated successfully with balloon valvuloplasty in the catheterization lab. Anatomy: The aortic valve may be tricuspid with fused leaflets, bicuspid, or unicuspid (a bicuspid valve is present in up to 2% of the population). Stenosis may occur in the subvalvar area or supravalvar area (often associated with William’s syndrome). Management: Mild aortic stenosis does not require intervention, although a bicuspid aortic valve may develop calcification and worsening stenosis in the fourth through seventh decades of life. Moderate stenosis can usually be treated with balloon valvuloplasty in the catheterization lab. Anatomy: Coarctation usually occurs in the region of the descending aorta immediately opposite the insertion of the ductus arteriosus (juxtaductal). Isolated juxtaductal coarctions (formerly known as the “adult” type) can present at any age from newborn to adulthood, depending on how severe the obstruction is. Clinical presentation: If severe, coarctation can present with respiratory distress, failure to thrive, and even cardiovascular collapse in early infancy; this often occurs when the ductus closes, narrowing the juxtductal area further. If a coarctation is milder, intercostal arteries enlarge to provide a bypass for blood flow, causing a radial-femoral delay on physical exam and “rib notching” on chest X-ray. Hypertension or decreased femoral pulses are often the only presenting features, although claudication may occur. Management: Surgical correction is the procedure of choice for coarcation of the aorta in infancy and childhood.
Promethazine Promethazine is sold under several proprietary names buy generic cabergoline line, but Phenergan is the known brand discount cabergoline american express. Among over a hundred infants whose mothers took promethazine in the first trimester buy generic cabergoline 0.5 mg on line, the frequency of malformations was not increased (Heinonen et al. Neither was the frequency of malformations increased in two other studies that included several- hundred women who used the drug during their first trimester (Aselton et al. The frequency of malformations was also not increased in the offspring of animals exposed to this agent (King et al. Chlorpromazine The frequency of birth defects was not increased among infants of more than 400 women who took chlorpromazine during embryogenesis (Farkas and Farkas, 1971; Heinonen et al. The frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased among rodents whose mothers were given large doses of the drug during embryogenesis (Beall, 1972; Jones-Price et al. Prochlorperazine Published studies include over 3000 women who took prochlorperazine during preg- nancy, involving over 1000 exposed during the first trimester (Heinonen et al. The frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased in the offspring of women who took the drug in the first trimester. The frequency of cleft palate was increased in the offspring of pregnant animals given large doses of prochlorperazine during embryogenesis (Roux, 1959; Szabo and Brent, 1974). Gastrointestinal medications during pregnancy 227 Piperazine derivatives Cyclizine, buclizine, and meclizine are piperazine derivatives used for their antiemetic and anti- histamine properties. The frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased in association with the exposure to cyclizine or meclizine during the first trimester in the Collaborative Perinatal Project in more than 1000 infants (Heinonen et al. Among 111 infants whose mothers took cyclizine in the first trimester, no increase in congenital anomalies was found (Milkovich and van den Berg, 1976). Doxylamine-pyridoxine The combination of doxylamine–pyridoxine (Bendectin) has received considerable attention over the past decade as a possible teratogen. Until it was taken off the market, Bendectin was the most commonly prescribed antiemetic for hyperemesis during preg- nancy. There have been reports of an association of Bendectin use with diaphragmatic hernias (Bracken and Berg, 1983) and with congenital heart disease and pyloric steno- sis (Aselton et al. Among more than 1100 infants exposed to doxylamine (Bendectin) during the first trimester of pregnancy, the frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased (Heinonen et al. No statistically significant association was found between doxylamine and congenital heart disease in a large case–control study (Zierler and Rothman, 1985). Millions of women used Bendectin during the first trimester of pregnancy with no apparent epidemic of birth defects or adverse fetal effects. Therefore, it seems very unlikely that either doxylamine or pyridoxine is a significant human teratogen. It is generally accepted that neither Bendectin nor its components caused birth defects in human infants. It is most often utilized for severe nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. It has also been utilized for severe hyperemesis gravidarum (World, 1993; Guikontes et al. In unpublished studies, this agent was not teratogenic in animal studies (infor- mation provided by the manufacturer). Prokinetic agents Prokinetic agents stimulate upper gastrointestinal tract motility and are utilized prima- rily for the treatment of gastrointestinal reflux. Two agents are currently available in this 228 Nutritional and dietary supplementation during pregnancy class: cisapride (Propulsid) and metoclopramide (Reglan). Among 88 infants born to women who used cisapride during the first trimester, the frequency of congenital anom- alies was not increased (Bailey et al. Metoclopramide is also used as an antiemetic, especially for postoperative nausea. Among 175 infants born to women who used metoclopramide during the first trimester, the frequency of congenital anomalies was 4. According to the manufacturer, metoclopramide was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits (unpublished data). Interestingly, cisapride is listed as a category C drug and metoclopramide as a category B drug. In view of the data, both prokinetic agents appear safe for use during pregnancy, keeping in mind that metoclopramide has a larger cohort size and more power. Anticholinergics Anticholinergics are mainly used as antispasmodics and in the therapy of gastrointesti- nal diseases (ulcer disease, irritable bowel disease). Some of these medications are uti- lized for other nongastrointestinal indications, such as cardiac arrhythmias or urologic disorders. The frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased among more than 450 women who received this agent in early pregnancy (Heinonen et al. Skeletal Gastrointestinal medications during pregnancy 229 anomalies were reported to be increased in one animal study (Arcuri and Gautieri, 1973). Such anomalies have not been reported to date in humans and the data suggest atropine is a safe drug for use during pregnancy. The frequency of congenital anomalies was no different from control in the offspring of the almost 400 women who received this medication in early preg- nancy (Heinonen et al. The frequency of birth defects was not increased among the offspring of rodents given doses much larger than the human dose during embryo- genesis (George et al. Among more than 500 infants born to women who took belladonna during the first trimester, the fre- quency of major congenital anomalies was not increased (Heinonen et al. There was an association with minor malformations, but the meaning of this finding is unknown. No publications on human or animal exposure to this agent during pregnancy have been published. No increase in the frequency of congenital anomalies was found in the offspring of about 100 women who used this agent in early pregnancy (Aselton et al. The frequency of malformations was not increased in the offspring of ani- mals given dicyclomine in doses several times that of the human dose during embryoge- nesis (Gibson et al. Over 300 women were exposed to hyoscyamine in early pregnancy, and their infants did not have an increased frequency of birth defects (Heinonen et al. Congenital anomalies were not increased in frequency in the offspring of 180 women who took the drug during early pregnancy (Heinonen et al. Only 33 women who took this drug during early pregnancy are included in the Collaborative Perinatal Project database, and the frequency of congenital anomalies in their infants was not increased (Heinonen et al. It is not unusual to encounter pregnant women who used these medications during early pregnancy before they knew that they were pregnant, because these agents are commonly used by women of repro- ductive age. Numerous available commercial preparations and some common appetite suppressants are listed (Box 12. They are not recommended for use during pregnancy or in breast- feeding mothers because of potential adverse effects. Information on dexfenfluramine and exposure during pregnancy have not been published.